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한국고무학회> Elastomers and composites> Effect of Coagulant Type on the Silica Dispersion and Properties of Functionalized RAFT ESBR Silica Wet Masterbatch

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Effect of Coagulant Type on the Silica Dispersion and Properties of Functionalized RAFT ESBR Silica Wet Masterbatch

Woong Kim , Gyeongchan Ryu , Kiwon Hwang , Sanghoon Song , Wonho Kim
  • : 한국고무학회
  • : Elastomers and composites 55권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 09월
  • : 167-175(9pages)

DOI


목차

Introduction
Experimental
Results and Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

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초록 보기

Various studies have been conducted to improve silica dispersion of silica filled tire tread compounds; among them, silica wet masterbatch (WMB) technology is known to be suitable for manufacturing silica filled compounds that have high silica content and high dispersibility. Till now, the WMB study is focused on the natural rubber (NR) or emulsion styrene- butadiene rubber (ESBR) that does not have a silica-affinity functional group, and a study of NR or ESBR having a silica-affinity functional group is still not well known. Unlike the dry masterbatch technology, the WMB technology can solve the problems associated with the high Mooney viscosity when applied to silica-friendly rubber. However, a coagulant suitable for each functional group has not yet been determined. Therefore, in this study, different coagulant applied silica WMB was prepared by applying calcium chloride, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid by using a carboxyl group functionalized reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer ESBR. The evaluation of the WMB compounds revealed that the calcium chloride added WMB compound showed excellent silica dispersion, abrasion resistance, and rolling resistance.

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  • : 공학분야  > 화학공학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 2092-9676
  • : 2288-7725
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1966-2020
  • : 1633


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1Improvement of Abrasion Resistance and Friction of Rubber Blend Composition

저자 : Jong-hwan Lee , Jieun Lee , Tak Jin Han , Hye Min Jeong

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 161-166 (6 pages)

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On the basis of the use of shoes, the outsole, which is mainly made of rubber, has various characteristics. The most important of these characteristics is abrasion resistance and friction. Generally, the abrasion resistance can be improved by adding more reinforcing filler such as silica to the rubber; however, the friction force drops. Owing to these problems, rubber having excellent abrasion resistance and rubber having excellent frictional force are blended. In this study, various characteristics, including wear resistance and friction, were evaluated by blending NBR/SBR or NBR/BR mixture with high wear resistance and CIIR with high friction. The CIIR was increased up to 60 phr, whereas the friction wear characteristics were rapidly changed in the NBR/CIIR blend ratio from 75:15 to 60:30.

2Effect of Coagulant Type on the Silica Dispersion and Properties of Functionalized RAFT ESBR Silica Wet Masterbatch

저자 : Woong Kim , Gyeongchan Ryu , Kiwon Hwang , Sanghoon Song , Wonho Kim

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 167-175 (9 pages)

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Various studies have been conducted to improve silica dispersion of silica filled tire tread compounds; among them, silica wet masterbatch (WMB) technology is known to be suitable for manufacturing silica filled compounds that have high silica content and high dispersibility. Till now, the WMB study is focused on the natural rubber (NR) or emulsion styrene- butadiene rubber (ESBR) that does not have a silica-affinity functional group, and a study of NR or ESBR having a silica-affinity functional group is still not well known. Unlike the dry masterbatch technology, the WMB technology can solve the problems associated with the high Mooney viscosity when applied to silica-friendly rubber. However, a coagulant suitable for each functional group has not yet been determined. Therefore, in this study, different coagulant applied silica WMB was prepared by applying calcium chloride, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid by using a carboxyl group functionalized reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer ESBR. The evaluation of the WMB compounds revealed that the calcium chloride added WMB compound showed excellent silica dispersion, abrasion resistance, and rolling resistance.

3Properties of Silica-SBR Compounds Using Cellulose Dispersant Applicable to Tire Tread Rubber

저자 : Jung Soo Kim , Dong Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 176-183 (8 pages)

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Silica-styrene butadiene rubber (Silica-SBR) compounds have been used in the preparation of tire treads. The silica dispersibility of silica-SBR compounds is related to the processability, mechanical properties, and wear resistance of tires. Recently, in order to improve the silica dispersibility of the silica-SBR compounds, the wet masterbatch (WMB) process was introduced, which is a method of mixing rubber in the water phase. We aimed to improve the silica dispersibility of the silica-SBR compounds by preparing a silica dispersant applicable to the WMB process. For this purpose, cellulose, 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose, and cellulose acetate were employed as a silica dispersant. The silica dispersibility of the compounds was measured by a moving die rheometer. Improvement in the processability of silica-SBR compounds was evaluated by the Mooney viscometer. The wear resistance of silica-SBR compounds using a cellulose dispersant was improved by up to 29%.

4Influence of Process Oil Content on Properties of Silica-SBR Rubber Compounds

저자 : Jung Soo Kim , Dong Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 184-190 (7 pages)

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In the wet master batch process, process oil is used to improve the workability of silica-SBR. The process oil expands the polymer and provides lubrication to soften the stiff rubber chain. However, addition of excess process oil can interfere in the crosslinking reaction between rubber molecules and reduce the crosslinking density of silica-SBR. Controlling the amount of process oil is an important aspect for properly controlling the workability and crosslinking density of silica-SBR. In this study, silica-SBR was prepared by adjusting the amount of process oil to confirm its effect on silica- SBR. Vulcanization characteristics of silica-SBR were examined using a moving die rheometer. Dynamic viscoelasticity was measured using a dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer, and the mechanical properties were investigated using the universal testing machine according to ASTM D412. As a result, all silica-SBR compounds with 10 to 40 phr of process oil have effects of improving the processability and the silica dispersibility. Also, the optimum condition was determined when 10 phr of processed oil was added because the abrasion resistance was improved 65% compared to that at 40 phr.

5Catalytic Reduction of ortho- and meta-Nitroaniline by Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles

저자 : Sugyeong Jeon , Jeong Won Ko , Weon Bae Ko

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 191-198 (8 pages)

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Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a reaction of nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)2ㆍ6H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The synthesized NiO nanoparticles were examined with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The NiO nanoparticles were used as the catalyst for the reduction of o- and m-nitroaniline to phenylenediamine. The reduction rate of m-nitroaniline was faster than that of o-nitroaniline. The reduction rate for both o- and m-nitroaniline increased as the reaction temperature increased. The rate of reduction for nitroaniline followed a pseudo first-order reaction rate law.

6Solution Based Epoxidation Towards Facilitating the Production of Epoxidized Isoprene Rubbers

저자 : Xiaojie Zhang , Tridib Kumar Sinha , Jeong Seok Oh , Jin Kuk Kim

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 199-204 (6 pages)

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Considering the immense applicability of isoprene rubbers, such as natural rubber (NR) and synthetic polyisoprene rubber (IR), attempts are being made to introduce more functionality within the rubber structure, e.g. epoxidation, to widen their technological viability. Epoxidation introduces polar epoxy bonds into the rubber molecular chain, resulting in enhanced intermolecular interactions among the rubber chains, increasing the oil resistance and air impermeability. Although there have been many reports on the epoxidation of NR in its latex form, there has been no such report using its solid form (or gum), which limits the epoxidation in terms of portability. Furthermore, the gum form has longer lifetime, while the latex form has limited lifetime for its efficient use. In this study, the epoxidation of natural rubber and polyisoprene rubber (using meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) as the epoxidizing agent) by dissolving their gum in hexane (i.e., the solution method) have been studied and compared. The effects of the amount of mCPBA, reaction time, and reaction temperature were investigated. The present process is easy and facilitates the epoxidation of rubbers in their solid form; therefore, it can be used for industrial upscaling of epoxidized rubber production.

7Preparation and Characterization of Wholly Aromatic Polybenzoxazole Copolymers Bearing Ether and Bulky Units

저자 : So Hee Han , Eung Jae Lee , Jae Kon Choi

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 205-214 (10 pages)

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A series of wholly aromatic polyhyroxyamide (PHA) copolymers were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of isophthalic acid and diacids containing bulky units with 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidine. The inherent viscosities of the PHAs measured at 35℃ in DMAc solution were in the range of 0.31-0.56 dL/g. The solubility study revealed that the PHAs were readily soluble in aprotic solvents such as, dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at room temperature and in less polar solvent such as pyridine. However, the polybenzoxazole (PBO) copoymers were quite insoluble in all organic solvents except partially soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid and partially soluble in NMP containing LiCl. The PBO copolymers showed maximum weight loss temperature in the range of 593-632 ℃ and high char yields in the range of 65.0-71.2% at 900℃ in a nitrogen atmosphere.

8Influence of Nano-Cellulose Dispersant on the Vulcanization Characteristics, Viscoelastic Properties, and Mechanical Properties of Silica-SBR Compounds

저자 : Jung Soo Kim , Dong Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 215-221 (7 pages)

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Silica/SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) compounds are the primary constituents of tire treads. Furthermore, the excellent dynamic viscoelastic properties of silica lead to good fuel efficiencies. However, the silanol group on the surface of silica does not mix well with non-polar rubber because of its polarity. This incompatibility causes aggregation due to the occurrence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups, thereby reducing the dispersibility of silica. Recently, the wet master batch (WMB) process has been applied to overcome these disadvantages, and research on silica dispersants that can be used in the WMB process has been increasing. In this study, we prepared silica/SBR compounds by using three types of eco-friendly cellulose-based dispersants in the WMB process, namely: cellulose-, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and nanocellulose-based dispersants. Subsequently, we compared the vulcanization characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and mechanical properties of the compounds. The silica dispersibility in the rubber compounds was improved with the addition of the nano-cellulose dispersant, resulting in the enhancement of the workability, hardness, tensile strength, and wear resistance of the SBR compound.

9Rubber Material Development and Performance Evaluation of Diaphragm Seal for Steam Generator Nozzle Dam

저자 : Chang-su Woo , Chi-sung Song , Han-chil Lee , Jin-wook Kwon

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 222-228 (7 pages)

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Rubber materials, used in nuclear power plants, need high heat-oxidation resistance to curing or cracking under a heat aging environment. This is because they are applied to environments with high temperature, high humidity, and radiation exposure. Nuclear radiation causes additional hardening or degradation, therefore, rubber materials need radiation resistance that satisfies the general and any accidental conditions produced in the power plant. Therefore, in this study, we developed a rubber material with excellent heat and radiation resistance for the diaphragm seal of a nuclear steam generator nozzle dam. The rubber material greatly improved the reliability of the steam generator nozzle dam. In addition, 30 inch and 42 inch diaphragm seals were manufactured using the developed rubber material. A nozzle dam was installed in a nuclear power plant and tested under the same conditions as a steam generator to evaluate safety and reliability. In the future, the performance and safety of diaphragm seals developed through field tests of nuclear power plants will be evaluated and applied to currently operating and new nuclear power plants.

10Influence of Chlorine Treatment on Measurement of Crosslink Density of Wiper Blade

저자 : Chae Eun Son , Sung-seen Choi

발행기관 : 한국고무학회 간행물 : Elastomers and composites 55권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 229-234 (6 pages)

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Automobile wiper blades are generally treated with chlorine to lower their friction coefficient with the windshield surface. This treatment could affect the crosslink density measurement of rubber vulcanizates, a material used in windshield wipers, which would consequently alter its chemical and physical properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of chlorination on crosslink density measurements of natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates using a vehicle wiper blade. A method for determining the degree of chlorination was developed where the interaction parameter between the rubber and the swelling solvent was corrected. A decrease in the rubber sample swelling ratio was observed upon chlorination, and the chlorination penetrated less than 1% of the sample thickness. The chlorinated NR was assumed to be chloroprene rubber (CR), which was used to correct the interaction parameter. The results showed the CR contributed approximately 7% to the parameter.

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